Arctigenin is the main active ingredient of Fructus Arctii, which has been reported with a variety of therapeutic activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-virus, and anti-obesity effects. In this study, a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of arctigenin in rat plasma. The assay utilized a simple protein precipitation with methanol and the mobile phase consisted of 100% methanol and water containing 0.1% formic acid (65:35 v/v). Arctigenin and the internal standard (psoralen) were monitored using a positive electrospray turbo ionspray mode with multiple reaction monitoring transitions of m/z 373.2→136.9 and m/z 187.2→130.9, respectively, and total chromatographic run time was within 5 min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of arctigenin was 5 ng/mL in the rat plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy of arctigenin at LLOQ and matrix-matched quality control samples ranged 97.4 – 104.8% and 97.2 – 102.0%, respectively. The intra-day precision was within 4.80% and the interday precision was within 5.92%. Application of the present method was demonstrated through a pharmacokinetic study after intravenous and oral administration of arctigenin in male Sprague Dawley rats.
Understanding the mechanisms that control and concentrate the observed electrospray ionisation (ESI) response from peptides is important. Controlling these mechanisms can improve signal-to-noise ratio in the mass spectrum, and enhances the generation of intact ions, and thus, improves the detection of peptides when analysing mixtures. The effects of different mixtures of aqueous: organic solvents (25, 50, 75%; v/v): formic acid solution (at pH 3.26) compositions on the ESI response and chargestate distribution (CSD) during mass spectrometry (MS) were determined in a group of biologically active peptides (molecular wt range 1.3 - 3.3 kDa). The ESI response is dependent on type of organic solvent in the mobile phase mixture and therefore, solvent choice affects optimal ion intensities. As expected, intact peptide ions gave a more intense ESI signal in polar protic solvent mixtures than in the low polarity solvent. However, for four out of the five analysed peptides, neither the ESI response nor the CSD were affected by the volatility of the solvent mixture. Therefore, in solvent mixtures, as the composition changes during the evaporation processes, the pKb of the amino acid composition is a better predictor of multiple charging of the peptides.
The purpose of this study was to develop a cocktail approach for the measurement of the permeability of marker compounds, caffeine and propranolol (high permeability), ofloxacin (intermediate), atenolol (low), and quinidine (P-glycoprotein substrate), simultaneously. Then we compared the permeability in Caco-2 cells with that in rat intestinal segments. The difference between individual measurement and cocktail approach was less than 20 %, and the permeabilities of these compounds were similar to those previously reported, suggesting that the cocktail transport study and simultaneous drug analysis were successfully developed and validated in this study. Additionally, in the application of this cocktail method, the permeability of five drugs in rat jejunum was similar to that in ileum but different from that in colon, which was measured using the Ussing chamber system. Moreover, permeability in jejunum and ileum was similar to that in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, the permeability in Caco-2 cells was equivalent to the permeability in rat jejunum and ileum determined with the Ussing system. Therefore, this newly developed cocktail assay and its application to the Ussing system can be a useful tool for robust and rapid screening for site-specific permeability in rat intestine, thus accelerating the prediction of absorption of new chemical entities.
Meldonium is a drug for treating ischemia by expanding the arteries but it can also enhance the performance of sports players. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has included it in the list of prohibited substances since 2016. Meldonium is one of the challenging substances for anti-doping testing because it is difficult to recover by general liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction due to its permanent charge and high polarity. Therefore, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is currently used by injecting a diluted urine sample (known as the “dilute-and-shoot” strategy). There is no loss of target compounds in the extraction/cleanup procedure but its high matrix effect could interfere in their separation or detection from the endogenous urinary compounds. We report a single method using high-resolution mass spectrometry that can be used for both screening and confirmation, which follows the “dilute-and-shoot” strategy. In this method, the endogenous compounds’ interfering peaks in the mass spectrum are separated at a high resolution of FWHM 140,000, and the results are suitable for substance detection following the WADA guidelines. The interferences in the obtained mass spectrum of the urine matrix are identified as acetylcholine, lysine, and glutamine by further analysis and database searching. Validation of the method is performed in routine anti-doping testing, and the limit of detection is 50 ng/mL. This method uses simple sample preparation and a general reverse phase HPLC column, and it can be easily applied to other substances.
Isothiazolinone derivatives are widely used in consumer products as disinfectants or preservatives, but there are growing concerns about their impact on human health. Therefore, rapid screening of these biocides is very important for proper control and regulation of potentially hazardous substances. To this end, low-temperature plasma (LTP) ionization mass spectrometry (MS) was investigated to demonstrate its potential for direct and selective analysis of isothiazolinones from sprayed aerosol samples. Benzisothiazolinone (BIT) was clearly identified from a commercial fabric deodorant using LTP ionization MS and MS/MS. LTP allowed selective ionization of BIT directly from the simply sprayed aerosol sample and illustrated its potential for fast screening without sample pre-treatments. Selective nature of LTP ionization, on the other hands, implicates use of LTP ionization MS as a general screening method for specific groups of hazardous chemicals in commercial products.