Despite its great success in the field of proteomics, mass spectrometry has limited use for determining structural details of peptides, proteins, and their assemblies. Emerging ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry has enabled us to explore the conformational space of protein ions in the gas phase, and further combinations with the gas-phase ion spectroscopy and the colli-sion-induced unfolding have extended its abilities to elucidating the secondary structure and local details of conformational transi-tions. This review will provide a brief introduction to the combined approaches of IMS-MS with gas-phase ion infrared spectroscopy or collision-induced unfolding and their most recent results that successfully revealed higher-order structural details.
While montelukast (ML), a cysteinyl-leukotriene type 1 receptor (CysLT 1 ) antagonist is widely used to treat symp-toms of rhinitis or asthma, its formulations are mainly limited to solid preparation due to its instability. Recently, there have been attempts to develop various ML dosage forms, and this situation increases the demand of sensitive and creditable methods to determine ML in various samples such as plasma. Thus, here, a simple and efficient method to determine ML in rat plasma using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and multiple reaction monitoring was presented. The mixture of DCM:EtOAc (25:75, v/v), the optimized extract solvent for LLE was found to be effective to extract ML without hydrophilic salts and proteins from the sam-ple with limited volume. Also, the use of zafirlukast, instead of expensive ML-d 6 , as the internal standard makes the present method economical. The developed method was successfully validated in terms of selectivity, matrix effects (-14.8--6.9%), lin-earity (r 2 ³0.998 within 0.5-500 ng/mL), sensitivity (the limit of detection and the lower limit of quantitation, ≤0.5 ng/mL), accu-racy (88.4-100.6%), precision (3.0-13.3%), and recovery (80.8-86.3%) by following the FDA guidelines. Finally, the applicability of the validated method to pharmacokinetics (PK) studies was confirmed by the successful determination of PK parameters through it following oral administration of Singulair ® granule in rats. Therefore, the present method can contribute to the development of new ML formulations through its performance to determine ML in rat plasma efficiently and sensitively.
Characterization of the various chemical aspects of composite polymers is important for quality control of manufac-tured polymers. In this study, we compared three suitable matrices (α cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid [CHCA], 2,5 dihydroxy benzoic acid [2,5-DHB], and dithranol), to characterize various synthetic polymers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ioniza-tion time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although the spectra obtained with the CHCA and 2,5-DHB matrices were generally good, in certain samples ghost peaks disappeared only when dithranol was used as the matrix. Furthermore, we examined the use of sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA) as an additive to reduce interference by metals and copolymers in the spectra. In conclusion, appropriate selection of a matrix, according to the characteristics of the polymer, and the use of additives to improve sensitivity are important considerations for polymer analysis and development.
A systematic isolation and characterization study for Cassia auriculata (CA) seeds resulted in identifying antidiabetic compounds 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid. The ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography based triple quadrupole mass spectrometry methodology was developed and validated for simultaneous identification and confirmation of these compounds from CA seeds. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) based quantification method was developed with MRM optimizer software for MS 1 and MS 2 mass analysis. The method was optimized on precursor ions and product ions with the ion ratio of each compound. The calibration curves of seven bioactive analytes showed excellent linearity (r 2 ≥ 0.99). The quantitation results found precise (RSD, < 10 %) with good recoveries (84.58 to 101.42%). The matrix effect and extraction recoveries were found within the range (91.66 to 102.11%) for the CA seeds. This is the first MS/MS-based methodology applied to quantifying seven antidiabetic compounds in CA seeds and its extract for quality control purposes.
Interest in aspects of industrialization relating to human health has increased. Accordingly, the use of labels such as ‘natural foods’ and ‘organic ingredients’ has become more widespread, and greater emphasis is being placed on improving qual-ity of life. Water is an essential element for human life, and water quality has a significant impact on human health. However, technology that can precisely determine the substances present in water is still lacking. This study was conducted to establish a complete mass spectrometry process, from pretreatment to analysis, to measure and characterize natural organic matter (NOM) in Korean spring water samples. Salts and other matrices were removed from the samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with two different columns (PPL and C18). After establishing an accurate analysis method, the experimental results were evaluated based on Van Krevelen diagrams and analysis of molar O/C and H/C ratios. The method for characterizing NOM introduced herein should facilitate evaluation of water quality.
In this study, we provide full descriptions of how to make a low-cost and completely open-source laboratory-made air sampler that will be used for sample adsorption for thermal desorption-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) analysis. It is well known that harmful gases cause bad effects on human bodies, so it is necessary to identify the types and amounts of gases in industrial sites. One of the most commonly used methods for gas sampling is to utilize a sorbent tube using an air sampler. Commercially available air samplers are expensive, typically priced between $1,000 and $2,000, and their design often cannot be modified to fit the experiment. To address these shortcomings, we have developed a do-it-yourself (DIY) air sampler that is not only cheap enough, but also completely open-source. Furthermore, the performance of the fabricated air sampler was validated in conjunction with TD-GC/MS for the analysis of volatile compounds.
We report the application of 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride (often referred to as Yamaguchi esterification reagent) for the selective derivatization of the carboxylic group for GC-MS with the sample preparation method optimized for GC-MS analysis. The reagent was shown to be capable of selectively turning the carboxylic group into a reaction center, i.e., anhydride, of which the further reaction was directed to a near complete formation of required esters by unique steric and electronic effects of the reagent. Using the developed method, the chiral separation of hydroxycarboxylic acids by GC-MS using non-chiral col-umns was successfully demonstrated.
A certified reference material (CRM) for the analysis of nutrient elements in an edible mushroom (Ganoderma lyceum) powder has been developed (KRISS CRM 108-10-011). The mass fractions of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were measured by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS). To dissolve the fungi cell wall of mushroom consisted of chitin fibers, sample preparation method by single reaction chamber type microwave-assisted acid digestion with acid mixtures was optimized. The mean measurement results obtained from 12 sample bottles were used to assign as the certified values for the CRM and the between-bottle homogeneities were evaluated from the relative standard deviations. The certified values were metrologically traceable to the definition of the kilogram in the International System of Units (SI). This CRM is expected to be used for validation of analytical methods or quality control of measurement results in analytical lab-oratories when they determine the mass fractions of elements in mushroom or other similar samples.
Cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, and is known to be arachidonic acid epoxygenase that mediates the formation of four bioactive regioisomers of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). CYP2J2 is also involved in the metabolism of drugs such as albendazole, astemizole, danazol, ebastine, and terfenadine. CYP2J2 is highly expressed in the heart and cancer tissues. In this study, the inhibitory potential of ten natural products against CYP2J2 activity was evaluated using human liver microsomes and tandem mass spectrometry. Among them, bilobetin, which is a kind of biflavo-noid, exhibits a strong inhibitory effect against the CYP2J2-mediated astemizole O-demethylation (IC 50 = 0.73 µM) and terfena- dine hydroxylation (IC 50 = 0.89 µM). This result suggests that bilobetin can be used as strong CYP2J2 inhibitor in drug metabolism study.
An analytical method was developed for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers based on QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) sample preparation and liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. HIF stabilizers potentially enhance the performance of athletes, and hence, they have been prohibited. However, the analysis of urinary HIF stabilizers is not easy owing to their unique structure and characteristics. Hence, we developed the QuEChERS preparation technique for a complementary method and optimized the pH, volume of extraction solvent, and number of extractions. We found that double extraction with 1% of formic acid in acetonitrile provided the highest recovery of HIF stabilizers. Moreover, the composi-tion of the mobile phase was also optimized for better separation of molidustat and IOX4. The developed method was validated in terms of its precision, detection limit, matrix effect, and recovery for ISO accreditation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the application of the QuEChERS method, which is suitable as a complementary analytical method, in antidoping.